Verbal response times to directional traffic signs embedded in photographic street scenes
Response times to left and right directional street signs, embedded in photographic street scenes, were measured. Department of Transportation directional signs were photographically inserted on both the left and right side of the road. Both permissive and prohibitive street signs were used. The effect of field dependence, sex, street scene background complexity, and sign type were of interest. The street scene stimuli were presented briefly (180 ms) using a tachistoscope; subjects' verbal response times were measured. Mean response times for men and women did not differ significantly. Field dependence was significantly correlated with response time. Response times increased significantly as the street scene background was made more complex. Prohibitive word signs resulted in the fastest response times.
Shoptaugh, Carol F., and Leslie A. Whitaker. "Verbal response times to directional traffic signs embedded in photographic street scenes." Human factors 26, no. 2 (1984): 235-244.