Since the first generation of DNA vaccines was introduced in 1988, remarkable improvements have been made to improve their efficacy and immunogenicity. Although human clinical trials have shown that delivery of DNA vaccines is well tolerated and safe, the potency of these vaccines in humans is somewhat less than optimal. The development of a gene-based vaccine that was effective enough to be approved for clinical use in humans would be one of, if not the most important, advance in vaccines to date. This paper highlights the literature relating to gene-based vaccines, specifically DNA vaccines, and suggests possible approaches to boost their performance. In addition, we explore the idea that combining RNA and nanomaterials may hold the key to successful gene-based vaccines for prevention and treatment of disease.


Biomedical Sciences
Chemistry and Biochemistry
Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science

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© 2012 The authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Journal Title

Journal of Nanotechnology