Protamine-mediated DNA coating remarkably improves bombardment transformation efficiency in plant cells
We have developed a method by which remarkably higher efficiencies of transient and stable transformation were achieved in bombardment transformation of plants. Over fivefold increase in transient gus gene expression was achieved when rice or maize suspension cells were bombarded with gold particles coated with plasmid DNA in the presence of protamine instead of the conventional spermidine. A 3.3-fold improvement in stable transformation efficiency was also observed using rice suspension cells with the new coating approach. The coated protamine-plasmid DNA complex resisted degradation by a DNase or by rice cell extract much longer than the spermidine-plasmid DNA complex. The results from this study suggest that protamine protects plasmid DNA longer than spermidine when being delivered inside the cells, probably by forming a nano-scale complex, and thus helps improve the efficiency of particle bombardment-mediated plant transformation.
DNA coating, DNA delivery, GUS, Particle bombardment, Plant transformation, Protamine
Sivamani, Elumalai, Robert K. DeLong, and Rongda Qu. "Protamine-mediated DNA coating remarkably improves bombardment transformation efficiency in plant cells." Plant cell reports 28, no. 2 (2009): 213-221.
Plant Cell Reports