Influence of Extrinsic and Ego Incentive Value on Persistence After Failure and Continuing Motivation
We examined the hypotheses that (a) extrinsic rewards avert attention from ego threat, enhancing persistence after failure; (b) performance impairment after failure is greater when tasks have high ego value; and (c) extrinsic rewards reduce ego concern and thereby enhance continuing motivation on high ego-involving tasks, but undermine continuing motivation on other tasks. 131 college students completed 15 solvable or unsolvable (failure) matching tasks followed by 15 anagrams. Students gave up more frequently after failure except when they received rewards or were told the anagram task was very difficult. The extrinsic rewards reduced continuing motivation in the low ego-value condition and enhanced it in the high ego-value condition. Findings suggest that extrinsic incentives reduce ego involvement and threat, thereby minimizing performance impairment and increasing continuing motivation after failure on ego-relevant tasks. More generally, it is argued that exogenous incentives may be used to negate maladaptive motivational states.
Miller, Arden, and Harry L. Hom. "Influence of extrinsic and ego incentive value on persistence after failure and continuing motivation." Journal of Educational Psychology 82, no. 3 (1990): 539.
Journal of Educational Psychology