Close only counts in alcohol and violence: Controlling violence near late-night alcohol establishments using a routine activities approach


Purpose Assess whether 5 a.m. bars and nightclubs in Little Rock, AR were in fact serving to attract or generate violence in and around their premises and what impacts a new ordinance, requiring increased guardianship, served its intended purpose to reduce the incidence of violence. Methods Using violent crime data from the Little Rock Police, a series of Risk Terrain Models were utilized to examine whether the influence that proximity to a risk factor (5 a.m. alcohol establishments) has on violent crime changes after the new ordinance is established. Results Support for the ordinance was found for yearlong risk assessment, in that requiring 5 am alcohol establishments in Little Rock to employ a minimum of two law enforcement officers in and around the establishment acted as effective strategies to alter the guardianship and reduced the relative risk of violent crime in close proximity to these establishments. Conclusion The establishments were serving to attract/generate violent crime in and around their vicinity; however, support was found for the effectiveness risk reduction through increasing levels of guardianship and thus, reducing relative risk for violent crime. Furthermore, depending on the temporal aggregation, results varied on the potential riskiness associated with the 5 a.m. alcohol establishments.


Criminology and Criminal Justice

Document Type





alcohol, crime attractors, crime generators, risk reduction, super-controller

Publication Date


Journal Title

Journal of criminal justice