The geography of universal empire: A revolution in strategic perspective and its lessons
During the period that Sir Halford Mackinder dubbed the Columbian epoch, maritime exploration and imperial expansion resulted in one of the most significant political developments in history—the creation of a truly global international system. This paper argues that a Columbian “revolution in strategic perspective” occurred in Europe, and that this in turn provided the European great powers a critical advantage over polities which did not rapidly adapt to the new global character of strategy. The paper then examines the possibility that another such revolution in perspective may occur in the future and argues that the international system likely soon will be transformed.
Defense and Strategic Studies
Walton, C. Dale. "The Geography of Universal Empire: A Revolution in Strategic Perspective and Its Lessons." Comparative Strategy 24, no. 3 (2005): 223-235.