Electrochemical Doping of Halide Perovskites with Ion Intercalation
Halide perovskites have recently been investigated for various solution-processed optoelectronic devices. The majority of studies have focused on using intrinsic halide perovskites, and the intentional incoporation of dopants has not been well explored. In this work, we discovered that small alkali ions, including lithium and sodium ions, could be electrochemically intercalated into a variety of halide and pseudohalide perovskites. The ion intercalation caused a lattice expansion of the perovskite crystals and resulted in an n-type doping of the perovskites. Such electrochemical doping improved the conductivity and changed the color of the perovskites, leading to an electrochromism with more than 40% reduction of transmittance in the 450-850 nm wavelength range. The doped perovskites exhibited improved electron injection efficiency into the pristine perovskite crystals, resulting in bright light-emitting diodes with a low turn-on voltage.
density functional theory, doping, electrochemical, halide perovskite, intercalation, light-emitting diodes
Jiang, Qinglong, Mingming Chen, Junqiang Li, Mingchao Wang, Xiaoqiao Zeng, Tiglet Besara, Jun Lu et al. "Electrochemical doping of halide perovskites with ion intercalation." ACS nano 11, no. 1 (2017): 1073-1079.