Alarm responses to chemical stimuli from damaged conspecifics by larval anurans: Tests of three neotropical species
Larvae of several species of anurans have been shown to exhibit fright responses to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics, but the presence of this chemical alarm system is not ubiquitous for the order. We tested three species of Neotropical tadpoles (Bufo marinus, Rana brownorum, and Smilisca cyanosticta) for an alarm response to extracts from injured conspecifics. Tadpoles of Bufo marinus decreased their activity in response to extracts from conspecifics but not to extracts from heterospecifics or to a blank control. Neither of the other species showed any differences in their responses to the three stimuli (conspecific extract versus heterospecific extract versus blank). To date, only a few species representing five families of anurans have been tested for responses to alarm pheromones. Tests of a greater diversity of species may provide important insights into the evolution of alarm pheromones for anurans.
Alarm pheromone, Antipredator behavior, Anura, Bufo marinus (Bufonidae), Rana brownorum (Ranidac), Smilisca cyanosticta (Hylidae)
Summey, Misty Rose, and Alicia Mathis. "Alarm responses to chemical stimuli from damaged conspecifics by larval anurans: tests of three neotropical species." Herpetologica (1998): 402-408.