n-butane isomerization on sulfated zirconia. Deactivation and regeneration as studied by Raman, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance and ESR spectroscopy
n-butane isomerization on sulfated zirconia was studied in the temperature range 393-473 K. Rapid deactivation occurs, when the reaction is carried out in He carrier gas. In contrast, stable stationary activity was observed in H2 carrier gas. In situ Raman and UV-VIS diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and ESR showed that the deactivation is caused by the formation of allylic and polyenylic cations and polycyclic aromatic compounds, the formation of which is largely prevented in the presence of H2. Deactivated catalysts can be fully regenerated by treatment at 723-753 K in flowing O2. The regeneration process was also followed by in situ spectroscopies.
Deactivation, ESR, Isomerization, n-butane, Raman spectroscopy, Regeneration, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance, Zirconia-sulfated
Spielbauer, D., G. A. H. Mekhemer, E. Bosch, and H. Knözinger. "n-butane isomerization on sulfated zirconia. Deactivation and regeneration as studied by Raman, UV-VIS diffuse reflectance and ESR spectroscopy." Catalysis letters 36, no. 1 (1996): 59-68.