Ion beam modification of polymers
The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms.
Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science
Sofield, C. J., S. Sugden, J. Ing, L. B. Bridwell, and Y. Q. Wang. "Ion beam modification of polymers." Vacuum 44, no. 3-4 (1993): 285-290.