Relationships Between Student, Teacher, and School Characteristics and Mathematics Achievement

Teresa Petty
Chuang Wang
Adam P. Harbaugh, Missouri State University


A variety of factors contributes to student achievement in mathematics, including but not limited to student behaviors and student, teacher, and school characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these factors have an impact on student mathematics achievement. The target population for this study was North Carolina Algebra II students. Analyses of variance models were examined for group differences and a Three‐level Hierarchical Linear Modeling method was employed to examine individual predictors of student achievement in mathematics. Statistically, significant differences were found between students of different ethnicities, socioeconomic statuses (SES), and parental education levels. No gender effects were statistically significant. All teacher‐level variables investigated were found to be statistically significant, impacting student achievement in mathematics. School size and SES were not found to significantly contribute to student achievement. More research on the relationships between these factors shown to make statistically significant differences on mathematics achievement is needed to further explain several phenomena that this research reveals.