A comparison of some yellow chestnut oak (Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm.) Dominated forests in Illinois
The woody vegetation of three forest communities dominated by Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm. (yellow chestnut oak) were studied. All sites examined were located on steep, south-facing hillsides in central Illinois. Yellow chestnut oak accounted for 35-50% of the basal area and density on these sites, had an importance value of 72 to 115 (possible 200), dominated most diameter classes, and was common as small diameter trees. Other overstory components included other oak species, along with hickories (Carya spp.), and ashes (Fraxinus spp.). Dominant understory species were black haw (Viburnum prunifolium L.), American elm (Ulmus americana L.), red elm (U. rubra Muhl.), redbud (Cercis canadensis L.), and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.). Canopy openings caused by fire, death of veteran trees, and tree falls, should allow this cover type to be self-perpetuating.
LaGesse, Vernon L., William E. McClain, and John E. Ebinger. "A comparison of some yellow chestnut oak (Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm.) dominated forests in Illinois." Castanea (2003): 335-342.