Effects of Modeling and Tempo Patterns as Practice Techniques on the Performance of High School Instrumentalists
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of modeling conditions and tempo patterns on the performance of high school instrumentalists. The independent variables of this study were (a) model versus no model and (b) steady increase of tempo versus performance speed tempo versus alternating (slower and faster) tempos. Subjects (N = 60) were high school wind instrumentalists from the American Midwest and South. Subjects sight-read an étude and then practiced the same étude six times using one of six practice conditions that combined the two independent variables. Subjects then performed a posttest on the same étude. Dependent measures were pretest-posttest gain score comparisons (as percentages) of correct pitches and rhythms as well as overall percentages of tempo gains. Results demonstrated the with-model condition to be superior to the no-model condition in rhythm percentage gain and tempo percentage gain. Tempo patterns had no significant effect on results.
Henley, Paul T. "Effects of modeling and tempo patterns as practice techniques on the performance of high school instrumentalists." Journal of Research in Music Education 49, no. 2 (2001): 169-180.
Journal of Research in Music Education