A cross-national assessment of social desirability bias and consumer ethnocentrism
The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the consumer ethnocentrism construct and the corresponding CETSCALE measurement (Shimp and Sharma 1987) across cross-national samples. In doing this, we examine four hypotheses addressing the (1) unidimensionality, (2) internal consistency, (3) discriminant validity, and (4) males vs. females scoring patterns on the CETSCALE instrument. The results of the analysis of three samples (Japan, the U.S., and Sweden) representing strong, average, and weak national cultures based on work by Hofstede (1980) indicate that the CETSCALE is unidimensional, internally consistent, and exhibits discriminant validity. However, the scoring pattern appears to be different for females vs. males, with the U.S. females/males exhibiting higher social desirability bias than their counterparts in Japan and Sweden.
Consumer ethnocentrism, Cross-national, Japan, Social desirability bias, Sweden, U.S.A
Hult, G. Tomas M., Bruce D. Keillor, and Barbara A. Lafferty. "A cross-national assessment of social desirability bias and consumer ethnocentrism." Journal of Global Marketing 12, no. 4 (1999): 29-43.
Journal of Global Marketing