Intention to Oppose Animal Research: The Role of Individual Differences in Nonconformity

Document Type


Publication Date



Using animals to test cosmetic products is controversial, but little research has explored its social and psychological influences. Relationships between two personality constructs related to nonconformity (independence and anticonformity) and attitudes toward animal testing were studied using data from a survey of 418 students. The Independence Orientation and Nonconformity Orientation Scales (Ringness, 1970) were used to measure independence and anticonformity. Results showed that behavioral intentions were unrelated to age, women were more likely to get involved in antitesting behavior than were men, holding antitesting attitudes redicted intended action, and higher levels of anticonformity were associated with opposition as well, even when the effects of the other variables were held constant.

Recommended Citation

Goldsmith, Ronald E., Ronald A. Clark, and Barbara Lafferty. "Intention to oppose animal research: The role of individual differences in nonconformity." Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal 34, no. 8 (2006): 955-964.

DOI for the article