In this work, we combine a Siamese neural network and different clustering techniques to generate a dissimilarity space that is then used to train an SVM for automated animal audio classification. The animal audio datasets used are (i) birds and (ii) cat sounds, which are freely available. We exploit different clustering methods to reduce the spectrograms in the dataset to a number of centroids that are used to generate the dissimilarity space through the Siamese network. Once computed, we use the dissimilarity space to generate a vector space representation of each pattern, which is then fed into an support vector machine (SVM) to classify a spectrogram by its dissimilarity vector. Our study shows that the proposed approach based on dissimilarity space performs well on both classification problems without ad-hoc optimization of the clustering methods. Moreover, results show that the fusion of CNN-based approaches applied to the animal audio classification problem works better than the stand-alone CNNs.
Information Technology and Cybersecurity
2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Animal audio, Audio classification, Dissimilarity space, Ensemble of classifiers, Pattern recognition, Siamese network
Nanni, Loris; Rigo, Andrea; Lumini, Alessandra; and Brahnam, Sheryl, "Spectrogram classification using dissimilarity space" (2020). Articles by College of Business Faculty. 534.
Applied Sciences (Switzerland)