An Empirical Study of Patent Grant Rates as a Function of Race and Gender
In this article we examine the rate at which patent applications are granted as a function of the inventor's race and gender. Empirical analysis of more than 3.9 million U.S. applications finds minority and women applicants are significantly less likely to secure a patent relative to the balance of inventors. Further analysis indicates that a portion of this bias is introduced during prosecution at the Patent Office, independent of the quality of the application. Mechanisms underlying these disparities are explored. The article concludes with a discussion of our results and their interaction with patent law, innovation policy, and employment trends.
Schuster, W. Michael, R. Evan Davis, Kourtenay Schley, and Julie Ravenscraft. "An Empirical Study of Patent Grant Rates as a Function of Race and Gender." American Business Law Journal 57, no. 2 (2020): 281-319.
American Business Law Journal