The classifier system proposed in this work combines the dissimilarity spaces produced by a set of Siamese neural networks (SNNs) designed using four different backbones with different clustering techniques for training SVMs for automated animal audio classification. The system is evaluated on two animal audio datasets: one for cat and another for bird vocalizations. The proposed approach uses clustering methods to determine a set of centroids (in both a supervised and unsupervised fashion) from the spectrograms in the dataset. Such centroids are exploited to generate the dissimilarity space through the Siamese networks. In addition to feeding the SNNs with spectrograms, experiments process the spectrograms using the heterogeneous auto-similarities of characteristics. Once the similarity spaces are computed, each pattern is “projected” into the space to obtain a vector space representation; this descriptor is then coupled to a support vector machine (SVM) to classify a spectrogram by its dissimilarity vector. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach performs competitively (without ad-hoc optimization of the clustering methods) on both animal vocalization datasets. To further demonstrate the power of the proposed system, the best standalone approach is also evaluated on the challenging Dataset for Environmental Sound Classification (ESC50) dataset.
Information Technology and Cybersecurity
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Audio sound classification, Clustering, Dissimilarity space, Prototype selection, Siamese network
Nanni, Loris, Sheryl Brahnam, Alessandra Lumini, and Gianluca Maguolo. "Animal Sound Classification Using Dissimilarity Spaces." Applied Sciences 10, no. 23 (2020): 8578.
Applied Sciences (Switzerland)