Traditionally, classifiers are trained to predict patterns within a feature space. The image classification system presented here trains classifiers to predict patterns within a vector space by combining the dissimilarity spaces generated by a large set of Siamese Neural Networks (SNNs). A set of centroids from the patterns in the training data sets is calculated with supervised k-means clustering. The centroids are used to generate the dissimilarity space via the Siamese networks. The vector space descriptors are extracted by projecting patterns onto the similarity spaces, and SVMs classify an image by its dissimilarity vector. The versatility of the proposed approach in image classification is demonstrated by evaluating the system on different types of images across two domains: two medical data sets and two animal audio data sets with vocalizations represented as images (spectrograms). Results show that the proposed system's performance competes competitively against the best-performing methods in the literature, obtaining state-of-the-art performance on one of the medical data sets, and does so without ad-hoc optimization of the clustering methods on the tested data sets.


Information Technology and Cybersecurity

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© 2021 The authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


Audio sound classification, Clustering, Dissimilarity space, Image classification, Prototype selection, Siamese network

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