Development and Validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale


In recent years, issues surrounding transgender have garnered media and legal attention, contributing to rapidly shifting views on gender in the U.S. Yet, there is a paucity of data-driven studies on the public’s views of transgender identity. This study reports the development and validation of the Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (TABS). After constructing an initial 96-item pool from consulting experts and existing scales, Phase 1 of the study was launched, involving an exploratory factor analysis of 48 items. The initial factor analysis with 295 participants revealed three factors across 33 items—16 items on interpersonal comfort, 11 on sex/gender beliefs, and 6 on human value. The internal consistency of each factor was high—α = .97 for Factor 1, α = .95 for Factor 2, and α = .94 for Factor 3. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted in the second phase with an independent sample consisting of 238 participants. The Attitudes Toward Transgender Individual Scale and the Genderism and Transphobia Scale were also included to test for convergent validity, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the short form of the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale were utilized to test discriminant validity. Both of the data collection phases employed MTurk, a form of online sampling with increased diversity compared to college student samples and more generalizability to the general U.S. population. TABS represents an addition to the literature in its ability to capture a more nuanced conceptualization of transgender attitude not found in previous scales.


Counseling, Leadership and Special Education
Information Technology and Cybersecurity

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Attitudes, Christianity, Religion, Transgender, Transgender Attitudes and Beliefs Scale

Publication Date


Journal Title

Archives of Sexual Behavior