Recessivity of pyrethroid resistance and limited interspecies hybridization across Hyalella clades supports rapid and independent origins of resistance
Adaptation, Hyalella azteca, Pyrethroids, Recessive, Resistance
Several populations of the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides due to non-target exposure, but the dominance of the resistance trait is unknown. The current study investigated the dominance level of point mutations in natural populations of insecticide-resistant H. azteca and determined whether H. azteca from different clades with and without resistant alleles can hybridize and produce viable offspring. A parent generation (P0) of non-resistant homozygous wild type H. azteca was crossbred with pyrethroid-resistant homozygous mutant animals and the tolerance of the filial 1 (F1) generation to the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin, was measured. Then the genotypes of the F1 generation was examined to assure heterozygosity. The resistant parents had permethrin LC50 values that ranged from 52 to 82 times higher than the non-resistant animals and both crossbreeding experiments produced heterozygous hybrid offspring that had LC50 values similar to the non-resistant H. azteca parent. Dominance levels calculated for each of the crosses showed values close to 0, confirming that the L925I and L925V mutations were completely recessive. The lack of reproduction by hybrids of the C x D breeding confirmed that these clades are reproductively isolated and therefore introgression of adaptive alleles across these clades is unlikely. Potential evolutionary consequences of this selection include development of population bottlenecks, which may arise leading to fitness costs and reduced genetic diversity of H. azteca. Capsule: This study investigated the dominance level of point mutations in natural populations of insecticide-resistant H. azteca and determined whether H. azteca from different clades with and without resistant alleles can hybridize and produce viable offspring.
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