Date of Graduation

Spring 2011


Master of Natural and Applied Science in Agriculture


College of Agriculture

Committee Chair

Maciej Pszczolkowski


turf, grapes, peaches, apples, brambles, mass outbreaks, lures

Subject Categories



The green June beetle Cotinis nitida, L., (GJB) is an important pest of turf, grapes, peaches, apples, brambles and ripening corn. A few scout GJBs find ripening fruit and inoculate it with fungi as they feed; then the fruit releases volatiles that attract both sexes, resulting in massive aggregation and feeding that destroy up to 80% of the crop. In the USA, GJBs cause yearly losses of $3.6 million, even if the GJB are controlled by available means, which cost an additional $3.4 million annually. Mass outbreaks occur during harvest; thus, insecticides cannot be used due to pre-harvest and re-entry intervals that prohibit crop collection. Mating disruption, attract-and-kill stations, or sprays against scout GJBs could be solutions, but these strategies require lures for GJB attraction and monitoring. Such lures are not available on the market. The Entomology Lab at Missouri State University's Mountain Grove campus has developed a prototype of an inexpensive trap and lure for GJB. The focus of this research was on optimization of this prototype by testing the effectiveness of isopropanol for GJB population monitoring in four different habitats, the optimal concentration of the lure, and the optimal color and placement of the trap. Preliminary results suggest the GJBs emerge starting around the first week of July and will live until the first or second week of August. Habitats with ripening fruit are favored. The experiments with isopropanol concentration suggest that the most cost effective and efficient concentration is 50% alcohol in water. The experiments with trap color have shown no clear results as to date: more research is needed. It is suggested that the highest of the tested heights is the most opportune for the GJB. The trap prototype was also used for preliminary studies on GJB reproduction. The results from these experiments can be used to develop traps and new techniques to help combat the GJB.


© Brian Daniel Cowell

Campus Only