Date of Graduation

Spring 2017


Master of Science in Psychology



Committee Chair

Thomas Kane


goal-setting, goal hierarchies, goal structure, sport, baseball

Subject Categories

Cognition and Perception | Industrial and Organizational Psychology | Other Psychology


This thesis explores the relationship of multiple goals set by youth baseball players with past and present performance. Core to this investigation was the complexity, content, and number of distal and proximal goals reported by players who wrote their goals for an upcoming season. Results showed that players with a greater number of process goals (compared to performance or outcomes goals) and individual goals (compared to team goals) received higher ratings of performance by their coaches. Analyses also revealed that age significantly influenced aspects of goal structure and content for goal reported by players. That is, older players reported having more goals, and having higher number of individual performance goals. Results from this study highlighted the need for more research into the effects of age on goal-setting and motivation in sports. In addition, this study found further support for the use of process goals in athletics.


© Joshua A. Leet

Open Access