Date of Graduation

Summer 2018


Master of Natural and Applied Science in Agriculture


College of Agriculture

Committee Chair

Maciej Pszczolkowski


neem, Galleria mellonella, Sumi ink, plasmatocytes, HPTLC, stigmasterol

Subject Categories



The neem tree (Azadirachta indica) has been called the tree of the 21st century, due to its many beneficial properties. This research studies the effects of neem products on plasmatocytes of Galleria mellonella larvae challenged by injections of Sumi ink. Counts of circulating plasmatocytes increased in response to the ink within 4 hours. Concurrent injections of neem essential oil reversed this process in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic extracts of neem essential oil had similar effects on counts of circulating plasmatocytes mobilized by ink injections. Aqueous extracts from neem bark did not have effects on plasmatocyte counts. Comparative high-performance thin layer chromatography (HTPLC) showed a band of difference between chromatographic profiles of biologically active methanolic extracts of neem essential oil and biologically inactive aqueous extracts from neem bark. This band was stigmasterol. Stigmasterol alone reversed effects of ink injections on plasmatocyte counts with a dynamic like that exhibited by methanolic extracts of neem.


© Michael Anthony Fenske

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Entomology Commons