The Role of Optimism and Vision on the Framing of Approach and Avoidance Goals
Date of Graduation
Master of Science in Psychology
This study examined differences in goal characteristics as a function of goal framing (approach and avoidance). Relationships among free-set goal characteristics, optimism and personal vision were also explored. Using the framework of free-set goal theory individuals' personal vision was manipulated. It was believed that the compellingness of vision and a person's level of optimism would influence effective goal characteristics. Overall, students set academic goals in an approach direction. The most significant finding was that individual differences of optimism, general self-efficacy, and well-being had positive relationships with goal characteristics of goal self-efficacy and commitment for approach goals. Additionally, participants higher in depression tended to report less confidence in attaining their goals and lower commitment, regardless of how goals were framed, than less depressed participants. Implications of these findings for the future examination of goal setting as it relates to individual differences are discussed.
© Katherine Minor
Minor, Katherine, "The Role of Optimism and Vision on the Framing of Approach and Avoidance Goals" (2002). MSU Graduate Theses. 910.