Transformational Leadership Effects at Different Levels of the Army
In this investigation of officers' transformational leadership behavior, we expand the array of subordinate outcomes investigated, assess differential effects of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors, and examine differences in the occurrence and effects of such behaviors across three levels of the U.S. Army. Transformational leadership was expected to augment the effects of transactional leadership on an array of unit outcomes and across organizational levels. In support of our hypotheses, transformational behavior was found to augment the effects of transactional behaviors on followers' job motivation and affective commitment, whereas transactional behaviors were associated with subordinates' calculative commitment. Results indicated that the unique effects of transformational leadership on subordinate job motivation increased as a function of leadership level. In addition, higher ranking officers were perceived as more transformational and less passive than were lower ranking officers. Theoretical and methodological implications of these findings for transformational leadership research are discussed.
Kane, Thomas D., and Trueman R. Tremble Jr. "Transformational leadership effects at different levels of the army." Military Psychology 12, no. 2 (2000): 137-160.