The authors report on the effect of manganese (Mn) substitution on the crystal chemistry, morphology, particle size distribution characteristics, chemical bonding, structure, and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by a simple, cost-effective, and eco-friendly one-pot aqueous hydrothermal method. Crystal structure analyses indicate that the Mn(II)-substituted cobalt ferrites, Co1-xMnxFe2O4 (CMFO, x = 0.0-0.5), were crystalline with a cubic inverse spinel structure (space group Fd3m). The average crystallite size increases from 8 to 14 nm with increasing Mn(II) content; the crystal growth follows an exponential growth function while the lattice parameters follow Vegard's law. Chemical bonding analyses made using Raman spectroscopic studies further confirm the cubic inverse spinel phase. The relative changes in specific vibrational modes related to octahedral sites as a function of Mn content suggest a gradual change of measure of inversion of the ferrite lattice at nanoscale dimensions. Small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy revealed a narrow particle size distribution with the spherical shape morphology of the CMFO NPs. The zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetic measurements revealed the superparamagnetic behavior of CMFO NPs at room temperature. The sample with x = 0.3 indicates a lower value of blocking temperature (9.16 K) with the improved (maximum) value of saturation magnetization. The results and the structure-composition-property correlation suggest that the economic, eco-friendly hydrothermal approach can be adopted to process superparamagnetic nanostructured magnetic materials at a relatively lower temperature for practical electronic and electromagnetic device applications.


Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science

Document Type




Rights Information

This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

Publication Date


Journal Title

ACS Omega