Electroluminescence (ECL) converts electrical energy into radiative energy by the production of reactive intermediates from stable precursors at the surface of an electrode. Over the years, this laboratory method emerged as a useful, and commercially viable, analytical technique. It provides a powerful tool for understanding fundamental questions in chemistry, biology, and physics. Commercial interest in using ECL reactions in clinical and biomedical diagnostics has catalyzed interest in expanding ECL to detect a number of chemical and biochemical analytes including those important for food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and military/defense applications.
Richter, Mark M. "Electrochemiluminescence (ecl)." Chemical Reviews 104, no. 6 (2004): 3003-3036.