Characterization of a Liquid Crystal Stabilized Pharmaceutical Oil-in-Water Emulsion Optimized for Skin Delivery


A moisturizing cream containing 25 wt% of an organic solvent, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), is observed to be stabilized by an emulsifying wax blend of cetearyl alcohol, dicetyl phosphate, and ceteth-10 phosphate (tradename Crodafos CES). Polarized light microscopy indicates that the Crodafos CES helps to produce a liquid-crystal stabilized oil-in-water emulsion, which is physically stable for months under accelerated aging conditions and chemically stable over the full topical pH range of 3.5 to 9. Emulsion globule size in the cream is observed to be dependent on the degree of emulsifying wax neutralization, with the globule size decreasing with increasing cream pH. The superior solubilizing properties of DEGEE combined with the full pH range and liquid-crystal stabilizing properties of the Crodafos CES give this formulation the potential for a wide range of applications in the topical delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients.


Chemistry and Biochemistry

Document Type




pharmaceutical emulsion, skin delivery, liquid crystal stabilized emulsion, polarized tight microscopy, topical formulation

Publication Date


Journal Title

Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications