Effects of Halogen and Hydrogen Bonding on the Electronics of a Conjugated Rotor


The electronic properties of a pyrazine-containing arylene ethynylene unit are influenced by hydrogen bond and halogen bond donors that are held in proximity of the pyrazine rotor. These interactions are evident with iodine- and bromine-centered halogen bonds and O-H- and C-H-based hydrogen bonds. Bathochromic shifts of UV-vis and fluorescence signals are the best indicators of this intramolecular attraction. The effects can be attenuated in solvents that are less favorable for intramolecular halogen or hydrogen bonding, such as 2-propanol, and amplified in solvents that are supportive, such as toluene. Intramolecular attractions promote planarity in the pyrazine ethynylene system, likely increasing the effective conjugation of the unsaturated backbone. Additionally, computations at the B3LYP and M062X levels of theory using 6-311++G(2d,p) and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets suggest that the Lewis acidity of the halogen and hydrogen atoms influences electronic behavior even in the absence of conformational constraints.

Document Type





hydrocarbons, halogen bonding, solvents, aromatic compounds, noncovalent interactions

Publication Date


Journal Title

The Journal of organic chemistry