Elucidation of the intra- and inter-molecular electron transfer pathways of glucoside 3-dehydrogenase


Glucoside 3‑dehydrogenase (G3DH) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of the hydroxy group on the C-3 position of pyranose and shows broad substrate specificity by oxidizing many saccharides. Due to unique site specificity and wide substrate specificity, G3DHs can be used for synthesis of sugar derivatives, anodic catalysis in biofuel cells, multi-sugar analysis using enzyme electrode, and for enzymatic detection of 1,5‑anhydro‑d‑glucitol, a clinical marker for diabetes. However, few studies have focused on the fundamental biochemical properties of G3DH, including its electron transfer pathway. In this study, we isolated the G3DH gene from Rhizobium radiobacter, a homologue of marine bacterial G3DH, and reported that the isolated gene fragment contains the genes encoding the G3DH catalytic subunit (subunit I), G3DH hitch-hiker subunit (subunit II), and cytochrome c-like molecule (CYTc). Furthermore, we report the recombinant expression of G3DH from R. radiobacter in Escherichia coli, the characterization of recombinant G3DH and the investigation of the molecular electron pathway of G3DH. We first prepared the G3DH subunit I-II complex using a co-expression vector for both subunits. The G3DH subunit I-II complex showed dye-mediated G3DH activity toward methyl‑α‑d‑glucoside (MαG). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analyses revealed that subunit I contains an iron-sulfur cluster. We, then, prepared recombinant CYTc and revealed that it is capable of accepting electrons from the catalytic subunit of G3DH by absorption spectrum analysis. These results suggested that R. radiobacter G3DH possesses an iron‑sulfur cluster that may play an important role in the electron transfer from FAD to cytochrome c like molecule, which is an external electron acceptor of G3DH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CYTc mediate the electron transfer from G3DH to electrode without the artificial electron mediator.

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glucoside 3‑dehydrogenase, electron transfer pathway, fad, fe-s cluster, heme c

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