Occurrence of polyphenols, organic acids, and sugars among diverse elderberry genotypes grown in three Missouri (USA) locations


Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) is an emerging horticultural crop used in a variety of foods, wines, and dietary supplements. A better understanding of the elderberry juice complex including its putative health-promoting compounds in relation to genetic and environmental parameters is needed. A multi-location planting of nine elderberry genotypes was established in 2008 at three geographically-diverse sites in Missouri, USA. Fruits were harvested from replicated plots 2009-2011, frozen, and later prepared for laboratory analysis. Polyphenols, organic acids, and sugars were quantified by HPLC and the results evaluated for response to genotype, site, and year. The American genotypes "˜Ocoee' and "˜Ozark' were consistently higher in chlorogenic acids compared to other genotypes, whereas "˜Ocoee' was significantly higher in rutin than "˜Ozark'. The European "˜Marge' was significantly higher in isoquercitrin and other flavonoids compared to most North American genotypes. Significant differences in polyphenols were also detected among sites and production years. Malic, citric, and tartaric acids varied significantly among genotypes, sites, and years, whereas succinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids generally did not. Levels of lactic, acetic, and propionic acids were negligible in most samples. The American genotype "˜Ocoee' was higher in citric and tartaric acids, while lower in malic acid. The sugars glucose and fructose also responded significantly to genotype, site, and year. "˜Ocoee', "˜Ozark', and "˜Marge' perform very well in Missouri horticulturally and appear to have additional potential as cultivars based on their unique juice characteristics.


Environmental Plant Science and Natural Resources

Document Type





Sambucus, dietary supplement, fruit, antioxidant, flavonol glycoside

Publication Date


Journal Title

Acta horticulturae