Powdery mildew induces defense-oriented reprogramming of the transcriptome in a susceptible but not in a resistant grapevine


Grapevines exhibit a wide spectrum of resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., but little is known about the transcriptional basis of the defense to PM. Our microscopic observations showed that PM produced less hyphal growth and induced more brown-colored epidermal cells on leaves of PM-resistant Vitis aestivalis 'Norton' than on leaves of PM-susceptible Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet sauvignon'. We found that endogenous salicylic acid levels were higher in V. aestivalis than in V. vinifera in the absence of the fungus and that salicylic acid levels increased in V. vinifera at 120 h postinoculation with PM. To test the hypothesis that gene expression differences would be apparent when V. aestivalis and V. vinifera were mounting a response to PM, we conducted a comprehensive Vitis GeneChip analysis. We examined the transcriptome at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h postinoculation with PM. We found only three PM-responsive transcripts in V. aestivalis and 625 in V. vinifera. There was a significant increase in the abundance of transcripts encoding ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, WRKY, PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1, PATHOGENESIS-RELATED10, and stilbene synthase in PM-infected V. vinifera, suggesting an induction of the basal defense response. The overall changes in the PM-responsive V. vinifera transcriptome also indicated a possible reprogramming of metabolism toward the increased synthesis of the secondary metabolites. These results suggested that resistance to PM in V. aestivalis was not associated with overall reprogramming of the transcriptome. However, PM induced defense-oriented transcriptional changes in V. vinifera. © 2007 American Society of Plant Biologists.


Center for Grapevine Biotechnology
Environmental Plant Science and Natural Resources

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Plant Physiology