A cross cultural study of gender-role orientation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy
The study of gender differences in entrepreneurial self-efficacy to date has produced inconclusive results. Cross-cultural studies are virtually non-existent. The present study seeks to understand the complex interplay of biological sex, socialized gender-roles, and culture on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and motivation to become an entrepreneur. Findings indicate that among American business students the traditional view of "entrepreneur as male" is fading. For the next generation of business leaders and entrepreneurs, a new entrepreneur stereotype is emerging that balances stereotypical feminine and masculine characteristics. These findings were not replicated in Spain where traditional gender-role stereotypes associated with entrepreneurship persist, even among business students. Implications for entrepreneurial education are discussed as they relate to the development of skills associated with venture creation.
gender-roles, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, culture
Mueller, Stephen L., and Mary Conway Dato-on. "A cross cultural study of gender-role orientation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy." International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 9, no. 1 (2013): 1-20.