Date of Graduation

Summer 2020


Master of Science in Health Promotion and Wellness Management


Public Health and Sports Medicine

Committee Chair

Melinda Novik


Background: Adolescent participation in electronic vapor products (EVP) is on the rise and with it many new health concerns present themselves. EVP use tripled among high school and middle school students from 2013-2014 and has continued to grow. Previous nicotine related studies have shown that the earlier the age of initiation to nicotine, the higher likelihood to develop a nicotine dependence. Methods: Using the “Hooked on Nicotine Checklist” (HONC) current rates of nicotine dependence among college students at a southwest Missouri university was assessed. One hundred and fifty-six students were recruited from a KIN 210 class as a convenience sample. Data was obtained by administering an online survey that was given during the KIN 210 class. Analysis: Scores were classified as signs of diminishing autonomy (HONC 1-4) or full autonomy (HONC 0) for each question. Psychometric analyses were run to determine the reliability and validity of the 9-item m-HONC. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the frequency of nicotine dependency, strength of dependency, and the loss of autonomy. Results: The 9-item m-HONC reported excellent internal consistency with Cronbach’s α = .953, an exploratory factor analysis was also run to confirm the unidimensional nature of the scale.


electronic vapor products, vaping, electronic nicotine delivery system, ends, e- cigarettes, smoking, addiction, nicotine, HONC

Subject Categories

Kinesiology | Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


© Joshua B. Devine

Open Access