Date of Graduation

Spring 2021


Master of Science in Health Promotion and Wellness Management


Public Health and Sprots Management

Committee Chair

Sara Powell


Outdoor Recreation (OR) provides the benefits of physical activity and traditional leisure along with the addition of the benefits associated with an outdoor environment. Self Determination Theory (SDT) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) state that self-efficacy (SE) and autonomy can increase depending on the physical and social environment. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between self-efficacy and autonomy on OR behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was hypothesized there would be a correlation between individuals who participate in OR activities and self-efficacy as well as autonomy. The research also explored barriers and facilitators to OR via qualitative data. Participant data was collected via a voluntary survey distributed nationwide using Qualtrics. Survey measures included demographics, OR behavior identification, COVID-19 Activity Survey, the Recreation Experience Preference Scale (REPv2), and the Outdoor Recreation Self-Efficacy Scale (ORSE). A statistically significant positive correlation existed between autonomy and self-efficacy (r = 0.138, p < 0.01), as well as between self-efficacy and pre/post pandemic OR behaviors 2020 (r = 0.158, p


Outdoor recreation, self-efficacy, autonomy, leisure, COVID-19, pandemic

Subject Categories

Health and Medical Administration | Mental and Social Health | Public Health | Social and Behavioral Sciences | Sports Sciences


© Katheryn E. Carpenter

Open Access