Date of Graduation

Spring 2021


Master of Science in Early Childhood and Family Development


Early Childhood and Family Development

Committee Chair

Elizabeth King


This study examined adult transracial adoptees’ (TRAs) childhood experiences and determined how specific factors influenced their likelihood to choose biological procreation, adoption, fostering, a combination of these options, or the choice to be child-free when forming their own families. These adoptees were Black, Indigenous and people of color adopted by white parents in the United States through domestic or international adoption. Childhood experiences included the TRAs’ sense of belonging, cultural socialization, and preparation for bias. The only dependent variable option predicted by a childhood experience was the preference to be child-free. TRAs who experienced higher levels of belonging were less likely to prefer a child-free family. Higher levels of both cultural socialization and preparation for bias approached significance in predicting less likelihood to prefer a child-free family. Data were collected via mixed methods including an online survey and interviews. The aim was to expand representation of adult TRAs in the literature and to inform best social work and parenting practices involving TRAs.


adoption, adoptee, transracial adoption, transracial adoptee, cultural socialization, preparation for bias, belongingness, parenting, procreation, decision-making

Subject Categories

Curriculum and Instruction | Development Studies | Multicultural Psychology | Social Work


© Sarah J. Gray

Open Access