Date of Graduation

Spring 2023


Master of Science in Athletic Training



Committee Chair

Daniel Wilson


Ground reaction forces can help coaches and players understand the lower extremity biomechanics of pitching in baseball. Research has told us that there are repeatable characteristics of ground reaction forces that pitchers produce during a pitch. This study examines the differences in peak ground reaction forces produced from pitching from the stretch versus pitching from the wind-up. Five variables were recorded for each pitch from the push-off leg and the landing leg. Landing forces were then compared to landing forces of the other pitching style and the same comparison was made for the push-off leg. This was achieved by altering a pitching mound to hold force plates that monitored each leg’s forces. Data was compiled and organized then paired sample t-test were used to find any statistically significant difference between any of the variables. A significant difference was discovered between two variables. Despite the difference found in this study, these variables have little impact on how pitches are viewed because of what the variables represent.


baseball, pitching, biomechanics, stretch, wind-up, pitchers, pitching style, ground reaction forces, MLB, college baseball

Subject Categories

Biomechanics | Exercise Science | Kinesiology | Sports Sciences


© Richard D. Edwards

Open Access