Date of Graduation

Spring 2023


Master of Science in Communication Sciences and Disorders


Communication Sciences and Disorders

Committee Chair

Alana Mantie-Kozlowski


Choral singing is a popular activity in the United States. Choral singers are often encouraged to warm up vocally before they sing. Considering voice conditions, like presbyphonia, that can develop shortly after retirement, more research about vocal warm-ups is needed for those over the age of 55. This study assesses the effects of various durations of vocal warm-ups on subjective and objective measures of the singing voice using a within-groups design with randomized condition order. Nine participants performed vocal warm-ups for 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. A song sample was then recorded and sent to two expert raters who rated the samples according to the Auditory-Perceptual Rating Instrument for Operatic Singing Voice. Participants also filled out the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) scale to rate how they felt about their singing. In addition to these two subjective measures, objective data were taken on pitch (Hz) and loudness (dB) of the highest loudest, highest softest, lowest loudest, and lowest softest pitches. There were no statistically significant changes in subjective or objective measures amongst the warm-up durations. This contrasts with a similar study performed on college-age music majors. Further research is needed to identify vocal warm-up types and durations that are effective with older adults.


singing, vocal pedagogy, vocal warm-up, voice, voice perception, choral singing

Subject Categories

Music Pedagogy | Music Performance | Speech and Hearing Science | Speech Pathology and Audiology


© Jeremy A. Chesman

Open Access