Writing Strategy Instruction For Students With Learning Disabilities: Effects on Writing Performance and Fluency

Date of Graduation

Summer 1998


Master of Science in Education in Special Education


Counseling, Leadership, and Special Education

Committee Chair

Linda Garrison-Kane


The problem investigated in this study was the effects of direct instruction in strategy usage on written expression of middle school students with learning disabilities (LD). The Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model (De La Paz & Graham, 1997) was used to instruct four students with LD about the genre pattern of expository essays. A multiple baseline across subjects experimental design (Kazdin, 1982) was used to analyze the effects of the independent variable (direct instruction) upon dependent variables through the examination of students' plans and essays. Dependent variables measured included: functional elements, essay quality, and several measures of fluency. Data were collected during baseline, posttreatment, and maintenance (six weeks after posttreatment). All subjects exhibited at least a 50% improvement over baseline essays after intervention of direct instruction for strategies in advanced planning and essay writing. The results of this study indicated that a functional relationship existed between the independent variable and dependent variables as all subjects had changed their respective method of writing essays, and direct instruction had a positive effect on both writing performance and fluency.

Subject Categories

Special Education and Teaching


© Dwight D Walker